What is oncology and oncological diseases?

Oncological diseases are considered the second most common pathologies in the world after diseases of the heart and blood vessels. What causes the development of the tumor? Under the influence of various provoking causes, the DNA chain is damaged, which leads to the degeneration of healthy cells into cancerous ones. Cells begin to grow chaotically, multiply, and spread to neighboring tissues and organs.

The reasons

Currently, scientists have found that the onset of oncological disease development has a polyetiological nature, that is, it is provoked by various factors.

What is oncology and oncological diseases?

The most common reasons for the risk of this pathology are:

  • hereditary (genetic) predisposition;
  • unhealthy lifestyle (unhealthy diet, obesity, etc.);
  • poor immunity;
  • harmful ecology;
  • disruptions in hormonal and metabolic processes;
  • the effect of carcinogens, chemicals and heavy metal salts;
  • smoking and alcohol abuse;
  • infections and viruses;
  • the presence of chronic and inflammatory diseases;
  • ultraviolet radiation;
  • radio wave and radiation radiation;
  • mechanical damage to tissues and organs;
  • great psychological stress (stress);
  • age (in older people, the likelihood of cancer is higher).


Oncology signs can be general and local. Local symptoms appear depending on the location of the tumor and their nature, and general manifestations are observed in all cancer patients.

The general symptoms of oncopathology are characterized by two syndromes: compression and intoxication. Compression syndrome occurs when the tumor squeezes the nerve trunks surrounding the adjacent organs and tissues.
At first, the pain is intermittent, aching or dull. As the disease progresses, the pain becomes acute and intense. In the advanced stages of cancer, the pain from compression is unbearable. The pain indicator means the stage of the oncological process.

Intoxication syndrome develops from a violation of metabolic processes in the body during the period of exposure to a cancerous tumor.

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The following features of the process help determine this syndrome:

  • sudden unreasonable weight loss, loss of appetite, aversion to certain foods;
  • changes in the skin – the appearance of yellowness or pallor, abnormal redness (erythema), skin lesions and rashes;
  • general weakness, fatigue, decreased ability to work;
  • apathy, depression.


Scientists have proven that bad habits, obesity and physical inactivity contribute to the appearance of oncological diseases. An active lifestyle and a balanced diet are considered cancer prevention measures. Compliance with a healthy sleep pattern strengthens the body’s immunity and resistance to various infections and pathologies.

The main preventive measure is regular dispensary examinations, since early detection of oncological diseases makes the risk of developing irreversible complications minimal and gives a great chance of cure. Preventive medicine is engaged in this – the name of the direction in modern medicine, which helps to preserve human health through early prevention of the development of various diseases, including oncology. Also, the nosological and syndromological principles of the study of diseases are applied.