Oncological diseases include tumor processes of various localization and histological structure. In a broad sense, they combine benign and malignant neoplasms, but practical oncology specializes mainly in the treatment of malignant tumors. At present, oncological diseases have significantly “rejuvenated” and are truly epidemic in nature, therefore, the search for ways to prevent them, early detection and treatment is an urgent interdisciplinary problem. To solve it, narrow areas are distinguished within certain medical specialties – oncogynecology, oncourology, oncodermatology, onco-ophthalmology, neurooncology, etc.
There are many forms of tumors that differ in localization, cellular structure, degree of aggressiveness, characteristics of the course and prognosis, and a number of other factors. In oncology, tumors are usually divided into benign, conditionally benign (borderline) and malignant. Benign neoplasms are characterized by relatively slow growth, no tendency to metastasis, and a good prognosis. These types of tumors include fibromas, lipomas, nevi, papillomas, leiomyomas, neuromas, chondromas, angiomas, and many others. dr.
Conditionally benign tumors also do not metastasize, but they have the ability to degenerate and recur multiple times after removal. Examples of such oncological diseases are adenomatous polyps of the stomach, atypical moles, cutaneous horn, senile keratosis, Bowen’s disease, etc. Malignant tumors are characterized by invasive growth, invasion of surrounding tissues, metastasis, recurrence. These types of tumors include cancer (carcinoma), sarcoma, lymphoma.
Every year in the world, oncopathology is diagnosed in about 10 million people, and 8 million patients die from some form of cancer. In Russia, one in five compatriots is at risk of facing cancer during their lifetime. According to the WHO, the “rating” of the most common oncological diseases is as follows. Thus, the most common “female” cancer is breast cancer; it is closely followed by cervical cancer. The absolute leader among male oncopathology is prostate cancer.
The most frequently diagnosed and deadly types of cancer, regardless of gender, are recognized: lung cancer, colon cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer. Somewhat less often, the causes of death are cancer of the bladder and kidney, pancreas, leukemia, melanoma. Leukemia, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, lymphoma, osteosarcoma, and retinoblastoma prevail among childhood cancers.
To date, many reasons are known that lead to the development of malignant tumors. Among them are unfavorable heredity, environmental problems, industrial and household hazards, stress, poor nutrition, unhealthy habits, an inactive lifestyle, viral diseases, etc. At the same time, studies show that about 80% of risk factors are potentially removable, i.e. e most cases of cancer can be prevented. This requires the efforts of not only oncologists, but, above all, of the individual himself.