Thrombosis is a dangerous condition in which a blood clot forms in a vessel. Such a clot can grow, clogging up the vessel until it completely blocks it, but under certain conditions it can also “break off”, becoming a thromboembolus. Sometimes it helps:

The treatment of this pathology is still complicated, and relapses are possible afterwards1. Therefore, it is important to know the causes of thrombosis, so that, having found them in yourself, to start preventive measures in time. We will talk about this, as well as about the manifestations of the disease.


Blood clots in blood vessels occur under the influence of a complex of factors that have been able to change

The viscosity of the blood;
the speed of its movement;
the condition of the wall of b

lood cells, especially platelets, which affected, among other things, their electrical charge.

A. Conditions in which th

e clotting system becomes overactive, and its antagonist proteins and anticoagulation enzymes cannot prevent it

These can be hereditary or acquired diseases, the most common of which are:

antiphospholipid syndrome;
elevated blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine;
systemic lupus erythematosus;
decreased blood concentrations of protein C or S;
antithrombin deficiency;
DIC syndrome is an acute condition that develops in many severe diseases (including infectious), after surgery, with complications of pregnancy: pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, maternal and fetal blood group incompatibility and others.

Б. Vascular injuries

They occur during placement of venous catheters (then symptoms of venous thrombosis of the upper extremities are observed), surgeries – especially during installation of prostheses and consolidation of fractures, surgical treatment of pelvic organs.

В. Providing conditions for blood stasis

This is caused by:

Prolonged immobilization: in the treatment of fractures, as well as other severe
Prolonged travel;
air travel – especially if there are concomitant abnormalities, such as rhythm disorders or myocardial infarction;
Anesthesia, when it lasts more than 60 minutes and involves the use of artificial ventilation and, therefore, the use of drugs that relax the muscles.
Г. Separate diseases

Other causes of thrombosis are pathologies that affect blood clotting or vascular flow. These are:

Tumors: any malignant, including leukemia;
acute myocardial infarction;
Inflammations of the colon;
heart failure;
kidney diseases, in which nephrotic syndrome develops (edema, loss of proteins in the urine, increased cholesterol levels);
paroxysmal hemoglobinuria;
systemic vasculitis, including those accompanying joint diseases;
Reduced platelet levels associated with the need for long-term use of heparin;
vascular atherosclerosis.
In addition, a fairly common cause of thrombosis is pregnancy, especially its second half, as well as the postpartum period. This is due to increased levels of progesterone, which increases blood viscosity. An enlarged uterus can squeeze the pelvic veins, resulting in a 2-3 times lower blood flow rate1. Thrombosis can also occur when physiological thrombosis of the veins in the area of the uterus that previously communicated with the placenta is triggered during the postpartum period1.

Д. Taking medications

Contraceptives, hormonal medications – including those for the treatment of malignancies, and chemotherapy medications, including tamoxifen, increase the risk of intravascular thrombosis.